By Ashley Gilchrist, M.P.H., P.A.-C.
Tobacco use remains the leading preventable cause of death, disease, and disability in the United States1 and remains a significant public health concern. Roughly one in five American adults are currently […]
The bottom line: we know that smoking causes heart disease, lung disease, vascular disease, and cancer. In addition, smoking has now been linked to increased perception of pain and spinal problems. Smoking:
Accelerates the process of disc degeneration.
Increases the perception of pain among those who undergo treatment.
Increases use of narcotics for pain control.
Decreases satisfaction with non-operative and operative treatments.
Decreases overall surgical success rate when all other factors are equal.